Why a Domain Name
Without an address, its almost virtually impossible to locate people and places. Like telephone numbers, each computer and/or resource connected to the internet is assisgned a unique identifier number called an IP address. This is a set of four 3-digit numbers separated by a dot "." in between.
192.168.001.001 is an example of an IP address in correct format assigned to a computer. So, if you need to access this computer over the network, you need to type-in these numbers in correct format and order each time you will want to access it. You may want to write it down on paper or simply memorize to recall later. That's fine with a couple of numbers but when the list becomes extremely long, it is not just practical to do.
A better way to do this is to assign a name that points (translates) to this specific IP address. Words in names have a better recall function than does numbers. These names are called domain names. myname.com is an example of a domain name.
A domain name is like an address but technically not. The correct address is called a URL (Universal Resource Locator) where the domain name itself is just a part of it. In our example, http://www.myname.com is a qualified URL containing the domain myname.com. Most modern web browsers allow you to enter just the domain name in practice but in fact, these browsers appends the missing parts of the URL for you (browser assumes you are connecting to the WWW Internet) before it can really make a connection to that address!
Without a domain name in your URL, there is no way you can connect to any website except to enter its specific IP address. The complex technical process of translating URLs to their equivalent IP address is all done behind the scene within the Internet infrastructure, so you really need not concern at all understanding about it. And that's the beauty of the Internet; it simply works!